Caffeine information

caffeine powder

Caffeine is one of the most famous stimulants in the world. It is best known as an ingredient in coffee, tea and cocoa. Most people know about this ingredient due to the its strong stimulating effects. Due to these stimulating effects, this supplement can improve physical performance and increase energy levels. Given these effects, it is not surprising that caffeine is a main ingredient in many pre-workout supplements.

Caffeine is also known as:
Theine
Mathein
Guaranine
1,3,7-trimethylxanthine

Functions of caffeine (powder)

More energy and improved sports performance
Caffeine is primarily known for its ability to increase energy and reduce fatigue [1]. However, this stimulant has many other potential performance enhancing effects. Recent studies have shown that caffeine can improve performance in both strength and endurance athletes. These studies indicate that caffeine consumption can increase the maximum number of repetitions and increase strength [2][3]. It has also been found that caffeine can improve the endurance and muscle endurance of endurance athletes [2][4].

Improved mental performance and mood
This stimulant is also known for its ability to improve mental performance and mood. According to research, it can improve the mental performance of users by increasing alertness, attention and concentration [4][5]. In addition, it can improve mood by increasing dopamine and norepinephrine levels [5][6].

May improve metabolism and fat burning
This stimulant is also able to increase the metabolism and help with the burning of fat [7][8][9]. Recent studies indicate that caffeine is able to increase metabolism up to 11% and the burning of fat up to 13% [7][8][9]. These effects are possible because caffeine stimulates the nervous system, causing signals to go to fat cells [10]. These signals trigger our body to burn more fat.

Other functions
Several studies have shown that caffeine may have many other positive effects. For example, research has shown that lifelong use of caffeine could potentially reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease [19]. Studies have also reported that people with a higher coffee consumption may have a lower risk of Parkinson’s disease [20]. It has also been shown that caffeine consumption may lower the risk of developing kidney stones [21]. Caffeine can have several other positive effects. However, we will not discuss each function given the relevance of these effects [22][23][24][25][26].

Who can use caffeine ?

Caffeine is one of the most consumed stimulants in the world. It is estimated that approximately 85% of adults in America consume caffeine [11][12]. It is important to realize that a large proportion of these people consume caffeine by drinking coffee instead of taking a supplement [13]. Current studies indicate that caffeine can be useful for strength training individuals, endurance training individuals and people who want to burn more fat [2][3][4]. It can also be useful in situations where increased alertness is necessary. These could be situations like night shifts, long car rides and jet lag.

How should I use caffeine ? / Dosages

Several studies have shown an improve in exercise performance with a caffeine intake of 3mg – 6mg per kilogram of body weight [3][14]. Therefore, 200mg – 350mg is recommended for most people in order to improve exercise performance. This can be consumed approximately 15 – 60 minutes before a workout. The stimulant effects of caffeine usually last for 3 to 5 hours [15]. Therefore, it should not be used before going to sleep. It is also recommended to start with a lower dose of 3mg per kilo of body weight or less. This allows users to determine their tolerance and choose the ideal dosage.

It is important to realize that continuous caffeine intake can result in caffeine tolerance. As a result, it is possible that after some time, larger doses are required in order to experience the desired energy boost. To avoid extreme tolerance build-up, this supplement should be used a maximum of 4-5 times a week. If you use this supplement regularly, caffeine intake from other sources should also be limited on the days when this supplement is not being used. If you already have an extreme caffeine tolerance, we recommend that you significantly reduce your entire caffeine intake for ~ 2 weeks. It is often recommended to reduce the caffeine intake gradually over the course of the first week.

How does this supplement work ?

After consumption, caffeine is quickly absorbed from the intestines into the bloodstream. It is then broken down in the liver into compounds that are able to modify certain functions in our body and brain. The main effects are noticeable because it blocks adenosine. Adenosine is a neurotransmitter that relaxes the brain and makes people feel tired. By blocking adenosine, users feel less tired and more alert.

Stacking / combining

This stimulant can be combined well with other ingredients and supplements. After all, it is main ingredient in many pre-workout supplements. It can be combined with supplements such as creatine, protein powder and synephrine. It is often combined with synephrine because of the metabolism-enhancing properties of both stimulants, this may further help with weight loss. [7][8][9][16]. It can also be used in conjunction with other stimulants. However, it is important not to use too many stimulants simultaneously.

Where does caffeine come from ?

Caffeine is found in nature in approximately 60 plant species, including kola nuts, tea leaves and coffee beans [17]. These natural sources can be harvested and are incorporated into a variety of caffeinated foods, such as soda and chewing gum. However, it is important to realize that added caffeine is often synthetic. The caffeine in pre-workout is also often synthetic due to the lower price. Fortunately, this has no effect on the quality or effectiveness of this stimulant.

Safety & competitive use

Safety
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has reported that moderate consumption of up to ~400mg caffeine per day can be part of a healthy balanced diet and an active lifestyle [18]. However, pregnant and breastfeeding women are advised to limit caffeine intake to 200mg per day. We also advise people with high blood pressure or heart problems to moderate their intake.

Competitive use
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) decided to remove caffeine from the banned substances list in 2004. This has allowed athletes to consume caffeine during training and competitions since 2004 without any problems. If you have doubts if use is legal in your sport, we advise you to ask the relevant sports association.

Correct use
A dietary supplement can contribute to a healthy and active lifestyle. However, it should not be a substitute for a healthy lifestyle and a varied diet. The recommended dosage should not be exceeded, since side effects may occur otherwise. Temporary side effects of caffeine can include: higher heart rate, restlessness, tremors, and a decreased sleep quality. In rare cases, these side effects can also occur with normal doses. If side effects occur, consumption should be discontinued.

As with any supplement, we advise users to consult a physician before use. In particular if you use medication or have health complaints. This product should not be used by people which have high blood pressure or heart problems. In addition, this supplement should not be used by women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. Furthermore, this product should not be used by persons under 18 years of age and must be kept out of the reach of children. Keep this product in a cool and dry place to maintain the quality.

References

  1. Aniţei, M., Schuhfried, G., & Chraif, M. (2011). The influence of energy drinks and caffeine on time reaction and cognitive processes in young Romanian students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences30, 662-670.
  2. Warren, G. L., Park, N. D., Maresca, R. D., McKibans, K. I., & Millard-Stafford, M. L. (2010). Effect of caffeine ingestion on muscular strength and endurance: a meta-analysis. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise42(7), 1375-1387.
  3. Astorino, T. A., & Roberson, D. W. (2010). Efficacy of acute caffeine ingestion for short-term high-intensity exercise performance: a systematic review. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research24(1), 257-265.
  4. Ganio, M. S., Klau, J. F., Casa, D. J., Armstrong, L. E., & Maresh, C. M. (2009). Effect of caffeine on sport-specific endurance performance: a systematic review. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research23(1), 315-324.
  5. Fredholm, B. B. (1995). Adenosine, adenosine receptors and the actions of caffeine. Pharmacology & toxicology76(2), 93-101.
  6. Nehlig, A., Daval, J. L., & Debry, G. (1992). Caffeine and the central nervous system: mechanisms of action, biochemical, metabolic and psychostimulant effects. Brain Research Reviews17(2), 139-170.
  7. Acheson, K. J., Zahorska-Markiewicz, B., Pittet, P., Anantharaman, K., & Jéquier, E. (1980). Caffeine and coffee: their influence on metabolic rate and substrate utilization in normal weight and obese individuals. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 33(5), 989-997.
  8. Koot, P., & Deurenberg, P. (1995). Comparison of changes in energy expenditure and body temperatures after caffeine consumption. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 39(3), 135-142.
  9. Acheson, K. J., Gremaud, G., Meirim, I., Montigon, F., Krebs, Y., Fay, L. B., … & Tappy, L. (2004). Metabolic effects of caffeine in humans: lipid oxidation or futile cycling?. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 79(1), 40-46.
  10. Kim, T. W., Shin, Y. O., Lee, J. B., Min, Y. K., & Yang, H. M. (2010). Effect of caffeine on the metabolic responses of lipolysis and activated sweat gland density in human during physical activity. Food Science and Biotechnology19(4), 1077-1081.
  11. Frary, C. D., Johnson, R. K., & Wang, M. Q. (2005). Food sources and intakes of caffeine in the diets of persons in the United States. Journal of the american dietetic association, 105(1), 110-113.
  12. Fulgoni III, V. L., Keast, D. R., & Lieberman, H. R. (2015). Trends in intake and sources of caffeine in the diets of US adults: 2001–2010. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 101(5), 1081-1087.
  13. Barone, J. J., & Roberts, H. R. (1996). Caffeine consumption. Food and Chemical Toxicology34(1), 119-129.
  14. Goldstein, E. R., Ziegenfuss, T., Kalman, D., Kreider, R., Campbell, B., Wilborn, C., … & Antonio, J. (2010). International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition7(1), 1-15.
  15. Evans, J., Richards, J. R., & Battisti, A. S. (2020). Caffeine. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing.
  16. Stohs, S. J., Preuss, H. G., Keith, S. C., Keith, P. L., Miller, H., & Kaats, G. R. (2011). Effects of p-synephrine alone and in combination with selected bioflavonoids on resting metabolism, blood pressure, heart rate and self-reported mood changes. International journal of medical sciences, 8(4), 295.
  17. Heckman, M. A., Weil, J., & De Mejia, E. G. (2010). Caffeine (1, 3, 7‐trimethylxanthine) in foods: a comprehensive review on consumption, functionality, safety, and regulatory matters. Journal of food science75(3), R77-R87.
  18. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA). (2015). Scientific Opinion on the safety of caffeine. EFSA Journal13(5), 4102.
  19. Santos, C., Costa, J., Santos, J., Vaz-Carneiro, A., & Lunet, N. (2010). Caffeine intake and dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease20(s1), S187-S204.
  20. Wierzejska, R. (2017). Can coffee consumption lower the risk of Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease? A literature review. Archives of medical science: AMS13(3), 507.
  21. Ferraro, P. M., Taylor, E. N., Gambaro, G., & Curhan, G. C. (2014). Caffeine intake and the risk of kidney stones. The American journal of clinical nutrition100(6), 1596-1603.
  22. Kim, E. S., Chun, H. J., Keum, B., Seo, Y. S., Jeen, Y. T., Lee, H. S., … & Ryu, H. S. (2014). Coffee enema for preparation for small bowel video capsule endoscopy: a pilot study. Clinical nutrition research3(2), 134.
  23. Varma, S. D., Hegde, K. R., & Kovtun, S. (2008). UV-B-induced damage to the lens in vitro: prevention by caffeine. Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics24(5), 439-444.
  24. Song, F., Qureshi, A. A., & Han, J. (2012). Increased caffeine intake is associated with reduced risk of basal cell carcinoma of the skin. Cancer research72(13), 3282-3289.
  25. Hildebrand, J. S., Patel, A. V., McCullough, M. L., Gaudet, M. M., Chen, A. Y., Hayes, R. B., & Gapstur, S. M. (2013). Coffee, tea, and fatal oral/pharyngeal cancer in a large prospective US cohort. American journal of epidemiology177(1), 50-58.
  26. Lopez-Garcia, E., Rodriguez-Artalejo, F., Rexrode, K. M., Logroscino, G., Hu, F. B., & van Dam, R. M. (2009). Coffee consumption and risk of stroke in women. Circulation119(8), 1116.

Author

Mario Klasens Author XBR