Phenibut information

phenibut

Phenibut has become a popular supplement and nootropic due to its ability to improve mood and sleep quality. In addition, it is also often used to combat stress and stimulate the brain function. The effect of phenibut is not surprising, given that it was used as far back as the 1960s to help with anxiety, stress, insomnia, alcoholism and other problems.

Phenibut is also known as:
β-Phenyl-γ-aminobutyric acid
Noofen
Fenibut
Phenybut
Citrocard

Functions of phenibut

Can reduce stress and improve mood
Phenibut is often used for its strong anxiolytic effects [18]. This means that it can significantly reduce stress and anxiety [18]. Because of this, many people also use this nootropic to improve their sleep quality. This is not surprising since stress is often the main reason for a bad sleep quality [1][2]. In addition to its potential stress-reducing effects, people also use phenibut to improve their mood [18]. These mood-enhancing effects are possible because phenibut can increase dopamine and GABA levels in our brain [3][18]. As a result, this supplement can also reduce irritability, tension and aggression [4][18].

Cognitive and mental boost
Phenibut can also improve our cognitive skills and mental performance [5][6][7][18]. This has a positive effect on our motivation, concentration and learning ability [5][6][7][18].

Protective effect
Phenibut can also provide some protection due to its neuroprotective effects. Therefore, this supplement can protect neuronal cells against damage from: ischemia, edema, stress and trauma [3][10][11][18]. Research has also shown that this supplement can provide cardiovascular protection. The cardiovascular protection mainly affects the muscle tissue of the heart, as stress can strain the heart chambers [12][13]. In addition, it can protect against hypoxia [3]. This means that it helps our muscles get enough oxygen during hard workouts. If our muscles don’t get enough oxygen, they become hypoxic. This may hinder the contraction of our muscles and have other negative effects.

Other functions
Due to the structural similarity between phenibut and GABA, phenibut may possibly increase the growth hormone levels in strength-training men [8][9]. Studies have shown that GABA can increase growth hormone levels by 175-375% in strength-training men [8][9]. However, the actual increase in growth hormone due to phenibut has not yet been studied.

Who can use Phenibut ?

Phenibut is mainly used by people who want to reduce stress while improving mood and sleep quality. The other positive effects can be helpful, but these are often not the main reasons why this supplement is used. It is important to realize that, as with caffeine, users can develop tolerance if used incorrectly. As a result, increasingly larger doses are required to get the desired effect. However, this is not the intention. Therefore, this product is not recommended for users who have difficulties following recommended dosages.

How should I use Phenibut ?

Based on current knowledge, dosages of up to 250mg are recommended [19]. This dosage can be used once or twice a day. To prevent tolerance build-up, a maximum of 2 doses per day should be used. Furthermore, this supplement should be used a maximum of 3 days a week. If tolerance builds up, gradually decrease the dosages in amount.

It is important to realize that it can take an hour or more for effects to become noticeable. However, phenibut does have a long-lasting effect, as its half-life is ~5 hours [3]. This supplement may actually work longer because the effect on our GABA receptors continues, even when phenibut is no longer in our body [15][16].

How does this supplement work ?

Phenibut is a derivative of the important neurotransmitter GABA. GABA is a brain chemical that blocks or limits certain brain signals and can reduce activity in our nervous system. Due to these effects, people experience an increased feeling of relaxation when the GABA level in our brain is increased. To achieve an increased GABA level, a GABA supplement can be used. However, a GABA supplement seems to be less effective than phenibut. This is because phenibut can cross the blood brain barrier, unlike GABA. Once phenibut has crossed the blood brain barrier, it binds to GABA receptors in the brain. This activates a similar response to GABA and provides the desired effects. In addition, phenibut can function by stimulating the dopamine receptors in our body.

Stacking / combining Phenibut

Phenibut can be combined with standard supplements such as: vitamins, creatine and protein powder. In addition, some users combine phenibut with: L-Theanine, Phosphatidylserine, Bacopa monnieri, or Caffeine. These combinations are used to possibly further enhance the mood enhancing effects of phenibut. However, the actual results of such combinations have yet to be scientifically studied. Given the strong effects of phenibut, we recommend that you do not combine this supplement to enchance the effect, if you do not have much experience with its use.

Safety & competitive use

Safety
A recent study from 2020 combined many studies and knowledge to draw conclusions about the safety of this supplement [19]. The study concluded that phenibut is generally well tolerated and safe when normal amounts are used [19]. The study also indicated that mild / minor side effects may develop in a small percentage of users, despite using relatively normal dosages [19]. Drowsiness was mentioned as the most common side effect [19]. The study looked at the side effects of relatively normal amounts of 250mg to 2000mg per day. To avoid these mild side effects, our recommended amount is a maximum of 2x 250mg per day.

The research also indicates that it is important not to exceed the recommended daily allowance and the maximum number of doses per week [19]. Phenibut is very strong, therefore serious side effects can occur if recommended use is not being followed. In addition, frequently exceeding the recommended amount can result in dependence and the development of tolerance. Therefore, this product is not recommended for users who have difficulties following the recommended dosages.

Correct use
A dietary supplement can contribute to a healthy and active lifestyle. However, it should not be a substitute for a healthy lifestyle and a varied diet. The recommended dosage should not be exceeded, since side effects may occur otherwise. Temporary side effects of phenibut can include: headache, drowsiness and dizziness. In rare cases, these side effects can also occur with normal dosages. If side effects occur, consumption should be discontinued.

As with any supplement, we advise users to consult a physician before use. In particular if you use medication or have health complaints. This product should not be used in conjunction with alcohol. It is also not recommended for people who have difficulties following the recommended use. In addition, this supplement should not be used by women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. Furthermore, this product should not be used by persons under 18 years of age and must be kept out of the reach of children. Keep this product in a cool and dry place to maintain the quality.

References

  1. Kim, E. J., & Dimsdale, J. E. (2007). The effect of psychosocial stress on sleep: a review of polysomnographic evidence. Behavioral sleep medicine5(4), 256-278.
  2. Han, K. S., Kim, L., & Shim, I. (2012). Stress and sleep disorder. Experimental neurobiology21(4), 141-150.
  3. Lapin, I. (2001). Phenibut (β‐phenyl‐GABA): A tranquilizer and nootropic drug. CNS drug reviews7(4), 471-481.
  4. Bagmetova, V. V., Krivitskaya, A. N., & Tyurenkov, I. N. (2015). Effects of phenibut and citrocard on non-competitive and competitive behavior during provoked aggression in animals. Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine159(1), 48-52.
  5. Shul’gina, G. I., & Ziablitseva, E. A. (2005). Effect of the GABA derivative phenibut on learning. Vestnik Rossiiskoi Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk, (2), 35-40.
  6. Ziablintseva, E. A. (2006). The effect of GABA derivative phenibut on defensive conditioning and internal inhibition. Zhurnal vysshei nervnoi deiatelnosti imeni IP Pavlova56(2), 236-241.
  7. Tyurenkov, I. N., Borodkina, L. E., Bagmetova, V. V., Berestovitskaya, V. M., & Vasil’eva, O. S. (2016). Comparison of Nootropic and Neuroprotective Features of Aryl-Substituted Analogs of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid. Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine160(4), 465-469.
  8. Powers, M. (2012). GABA supplementation and growth hormone response. In Acute Topics in Sport Nutrition (Vol. 59, pp. 36-46). Karger Publishers.
  9. Powers, M. E., Yarrow, J. F., Mccoy, S. C., & Borst, S. E. (2008). Growth hormone isoform responses to GABA ingestion at rest and after exercise. Medicine and science in sports and exercise40(1), 104.
  10. Tiurenkov, I. N., Bagmetov, M. N., Epishina, V. V., Borodkina, L. E., & Voronkov, A. V. (2006). Comparative evaluation of the neuroprotective activity of phenibut and piracetam under experimental cerebral ischemia conditions in rats. Eksperimental’naia i Klinicheskaia Farmakologiia69(3), 19-22.
  11. Vavers, E., Zvejniece, L., Svalbe, B., Volska, K., Makarova, E., Liepinsh, E., … & Dambrova, M. (2016). The neuroprotective effects of R-phenibut after focal cerebral ischemia. Pharmacological research113, 796-801.
  12. Smirnov, A. V., Barabanova, T. A., & Penchul, N. A. (2003). Cardiac effects of fenibut in development of experimental chronic renal insufficiency. Eksperimental’naia i klinicheskaia farmakologiia66(4), 21-24.
  13. Tyurenkov, I. N., Perfilova, V. N., Sadikova, N. V., & Prokofiev, I. I. (2015). NO-dependent mechanism of the cardioprotective action of phenibut on stress-induced violation of contractile function of the heart. Eksperimental’naia i Klinicheskaia Farmakologiia78(11), 8-11.
  14. Smirnov, D. P. (1980). Peripheral mechanism of the phenomenon of fenibut habituation. Farmakologiia i toksikologiia43(4), 431-433.
  15. Riago, L. K., KhA, S., & LKh, A. (1983). Effect of multiple daily administration of fenibut and diazepam on GABA and benzodiazepine receptors in the mouse brain. Biulleten’Eksperimental’noi Biologii i Meditsiny96(12), 49-50.
  16. Smirnov, D. P. (1980). Peripheral mechanism of the phenomenon of fenibut habituation. Farmakologiia i toksikologiia43(4), 431-433.
  17. Zyablitseva, E. A., & Pavlova, I. V. (2008). Effects of the GABA receptor agonist phenibut on behavior and respiration in rabbits in emotionally negative situations. Neuroscience and behavioral physiology38(6), 555-562.
  18. Sivakumar, N. A., Roy, A., & Ganapathy, D. (2019). Therapeutic benefits of phenibut–A review. Drug Invention Today11(9).
  19. Kupats, E., Vrublevska, J., Zvejniece, B., Vavers, E., Stelfa, G., Zvejniece, L., & Dambrova, M. (2020). Safety and tolerability of the anxiolytic and nootropic drug phenibut: a systematic review of clinical trials and case reports. Pharmacopsychiatry.

Author

Mario Klasens Author XBR